“Boredom is a flight from what is important. Like workaholism and perfectionism, it is a way of distracting yourself from inner experiences. It occurs when you look outward and do not find anything to engage your attention. Instead of feeling your emotions - becoming aware of the functioning of your energy system - you become bored. Boredom ... is a flight from your higher potential. It is fear of the transformation that wants to occur, and will occur in you, when you explore your emotions. It is your resistance to spiritual growth.”


“Boredom is a flight from what is important. Like workaholism and perfectionism, it is a way of distracting yourself from inner experiences. It occurs when you look outward and do not find anything to engage your attention. Instead of feeling your emotions - becoming aware of the functioning of your energy system - you become bored. Boredom ... is a flight from your higher potential. It is fear of the transformation that wants to occur, and will occur in you, when you explore your emotions. It is your resistance to spiritual growth.”
Different scholars use different definitions of boredom, which complicates research.[9] Boredom has been defined by Cynthia D. Fisher in terms of its main central psychological processes: "an unpleasant, transient affective state in which the individual feels a pervasive lack of interest and difficulty concentrating on the current activity."[10] Mark Leary et al. describe boredom as "an affective experience associated with cognitive attentional processes."[11] In positive psychology, boredom is described as a response to a moderate challenge for which the subject has more than enough skill.[12][full citation needed]
Thomas Goetz, the lead researcher of the work and a professor at the University of Konstanz in Germany, says the multiple types of boredom can be loosely characterized along two dimensions. First, whether it is associated with a positive (score of 1) or negative (score of 5) emotion, and second, by degree of arousal, from calm (score of 1) to fidgety (score of 5).

Then, after a baseline EEG test measuring normal brain activity, the researchers assigned the participants a tedious task: they had to turn eight virtual pegs on a screen as the computer highlighted them. This activity lasted approximately 10 minutes, during which time the researchers used EEG caps to measure participants’ brain activity as they carried out the boring task.
In Experience Without Qualities: Boredom and Modernity, Elizabeth Goodstein traces the modern discourse on boredom through literary, philosophical, and sociological texts to find that as "a discursively articulated phenomenon...boredom is at once objective and subjective, emotion and intellectualization—not just a response to the modern world but also a historically constituted strategy for coping with its discontents."[3] In both conceptions, boredom has to do fundamentally with an experience of time and problems of meaning.

Thomas Goetz, the lead researcher of the work and a professor at the University of Konstanz in Germany, says the multiple types of boredom can be loosely characterized along two dimensions. First, whether it is associated with a positive (score of 1) or negative (score of 5) emotion, and second, by degree of arousal, from calm (score of 1) to fidgety (score of 5).
Erich Fromm and other thinkers of critical theory speak of boredom as a common psychological response to industrial society, where people are required to engage in alienated labor. According to Fromm, boredom is "perhaps the most important source of aggression and destructiveness today." For Fromm, the search for thrills and novelty that characterizes consumer culture are not solutions to boredom, but mere distractions from boredom which, he argues, continues unconsciously.[29] Above and beyond taste and character, the universal case of boredom consists in any instance of waiting, as Heidegger noted, such as in line, for someone else to arrive or finish a task, or while one is travelling somewhere. The automobile requires fast reflexes, making its operator busy and hence, perhaps for other reasons as well, making the ride more tedious despite being over sooner.

The French term for boredom, ennui, is sometimes used in English as well, at least since 1778. The term ennui was first used "as a French word in English;" in the 1660s and it was "nativized by 1758".[7] The term ennui comes "from French ennui, from Old French enui "annoyance" (13c.), [a] back-formation from enoiier, anuier.[7] "The German word for "boredom" expresses this: Langeweile, a compound made of lange "long" and Weile "while", which is in line with the common perception that when one is bored, time passes "tortuously" slowly.[8]
“Boredom – the psychological state that we experience whenever we are uninterested in what we are currently doing – is one of the defining traits of humanity. Time is the psychological nemesis of humankind. Tedium, a fundamental angst of humankind, arises from human beings’ ability to perceive time and our attempts to derive meaning from our personal existence.”
Some theories emphasize the role of the situation, some emphasize the role of the person, and some emphasize the interaction between situation and person in causing boredom. The present study examines these models by determining whether boredom propensity (person) and/or experimental condition (situation) independently or in interaction affected state boredom. The study also examined the relative contribution of behavioural activation and inhibition to state boredom. Boredom propensity and condition significantly and independently predicted state boredom, as did the interaction between behavioural inhibition and condition. Implications are discussed, including the possibility of two distinct causes of boredom.

Martin Heidegger wrote about boredom in two texts available in English, in the 1929/30 semester lecture course The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics, and again in the essay What is Metaphysics? published in the same year. In the lecture, Heidegger included about 100 pages on boredom, probably the most extensive philosophical treatment ever of the subject. He focused on waiting at railway stations in particular as a major context of boredom.[25] Søren Kierkegaard remarks in Either/Or that "patience cannot be depicted" visually, since there is a sense that any immediate moment of life may be fundamentally tedious.
!function(n){function t(t){for(var e,o,i=t[0],u=t[1],c=0,s=[];c1)for(var e=1;e1&&arguments[1]!==undefined?arguments[1]:"",e=window,o=Date.now();if(n=t+n,e.ansFrontendGlobals&&e.ansFrontendGlobals.earlySettings&&e.ansFrontendGlobals.earlySettings.react_console_log_perf_info){var i=e.performance&&e.performance.now?e.performance.now():o;console.log("".concat(n,": ").concat(i))}r[n]=o}},VLrD:function(n,t,e){"use strict";n.exports=e("E2g8").polyfill()},oqNQ:function(n,t,e){"use strict";e.r(t);e("VLrD");var r=e("S0B4");Object(r.a)("entryLoaded");var o=function(n){return!("undefined"!==typeof fetch&&"undefined"!==typeof Promise&&Object.values&&Object.entries)?function(t){e.e("polyfills").then(e.bind(null,"ZjFC")).then(function(){n(t)})}:n},i=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"A+VG")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),u=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"SKAY")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),c=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"pys6")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),s=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"Gnru")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),a=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"0xW3")).then(function(t){return n(t)})});window.runApp=function(){Object(r.a)("runAppCalled"),i(function(n){n.runApp()})},window.inlineReact=function(n,t,e,o){Object(r.a)("InlineReactCalled","loadable"),l(n,t,e,o)},window.shimProxy=window.shimProxy||{webnodeSubscribeEventsQueue:[]};var f=!1,l=function(n,t,e,o){var u=function(){f||(f=!0,i(function(i){Object(r.a)("StartAppInlineReactCalled","loadable"),i.inlineReact(n,t,e,o)}))};window.shimProxy.webnode?window.shimProxy.webnode.subscribe("REACT_LOADABLE_LOADED",u):window.shimProxy.webnodeSubscribeEventsQueue.push(["REACT_LOADABLE_LOADED",u])};window.renderPrefetchedPage=function(n,t,e){i(function(r){r.renderPrefetchedPage(n,t,e)})},window.renderPrefetchedPageModalDeprecated=function(n,t){i(function(e){e.renderPrefetchedPageModalDeprecated(n,t)})},window.reportPageSpeedData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.reportPageData(n)})},window.setTimingData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.setTimingData(n)})},window.setGlobalMetadata=function(n){s(function(t){return t.setGlobalMetadata(n)})},window.updateGlobalMetadata=function(n){s(function(t){return t.updateGlobalMetadata(n)})},window.setServerPerfCheckpointData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.setServerPerfCheckpointData(n)})},window.setWebnodeLoadable=function(n){a(function(t){return t.setWebnodeLoadable(n)})},window.installSettings=function(){u(function(n){return n.installSettings()})}},yLpj:function(n,t){var e;e=function(){return this}();try{e=e||new Function("return this")()}catch(r){"object"===typeof window&&(e=window)}n.exports=e}});
One more key element of boredom is control. Boredom often occurs when you have little control over your situation. Waiting rooms, lectures, and airline gates are all places where you have little control over your situation. Normally, we react to unpleasant situations by changing the situation. If you don’t like a book you are reading, for example, you close it and do something else. Boredom happens when you are unable to change the situation.  
Boredom is a condition characterized by perception of one's environment as dull, tedious, and lacking in stimulation. This can result from leisure and a lack of aesthetic interests. Labor and art may be alienated and passive, or immersed in tedium. There is an inherent anxiety in boredom; people will expend considerable effort to prevent or remedy it, yet in many circumstances, it is accepted as suffering to be endured. Common passive ways to escape boredom are to sleep or to think creative thoughts (daydream). Typical active solutions consist in an intentional activity of some sort, often something new, as familiarity and repetition lead to the tedious.
Without stimulus or focus, the individual is confronted with nothingness, the meaninglessness of existence, and experiences existential anxiety. Heidegger states this idea as follows: "Profound boredom, drifting here and there in the abysses of our existence like a muffling fog, removes all things and men and oneself along with it into a remarkable indifference. This boredom reveals being as a whole."[27] Schopenhauer used the existence of boredom in an attempt to prove the vanity of human existence, stating, "...for if life, in the desire for which our essence and existence consists, possessed in itself a positive value and real content, there would be no such thing as boredom: mere existence would fulfil and satisfy us."[28]
The authors of this paper point to an interesting study by Robin Damrad-Frye and James Laird in the August 1989 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. In this study, participants had to listen to a tape of a person reading a Psychology Today article. In the next room, there was a television soundtrack from a soap opera playing. For some groups listening to the article, the TV was very loud and distracting, for others it was barely noticeable, and for some it was not playing at all. After listening to the article, people rated their boredom during the study. 
×