Martin Heidegger wrote about boredom in two texts available in English, in the 1929/30 semester lecture course The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics, and again in the essay What is Metaphysics? published in the same year. In the lecture, Heidegger included about 100 pages on boredom, probably the most extensive philosophical treatment ever of the subject. He focused on waiting at railway stations in particular as a major context of boredom.[25] Søren Kierkegaard remarks in Either/Or that "patience cannot be depicted" visually, since there is a sense that any immediate moment of life may be fundamentally tedious.

This kind of boredom is different from the others. Like reactant boredom, it’s also unpleasant, but a person experiencing it has low arousal and a lack of positive or negative feelings–in other words, a feeling of helplessness or depression. Of the high school students sampled in the study, 36% of boredom experiences were of the apathetic kind, which is worrisome given that other studies have shown that boredom, depression, and destructive behaviors are often linked.


The bored antihero became prominent in early 20th century existentialist works such as Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis (1915),[43] Jean-Paul Sartre's La Nausée (1938) (French for 'Nausea'),[44] and Albert Camus' L'Étranger (1942) (French for 'The Stranger').[45] The protagonist in these works is an indecisive central character who drifts through his life and is marked by ennui, angst, and alienation.[46]
Boredom is a condition characterized by perception of one's environment as dull, tedious, and lacking in stimulation. This can result from leisure and a lack of aesthetic interests. Labor and art may be alienated and passive, or immersed in tedium. There is an inherent anxiety in boredom; people will expend considerable effort to prevent or remedy it, yet in many circumstances, it is accepted as suffering to be endured. Common passive ways to escape boredom are to sleep or to think creative thoughts (daydream). Typical active solutions consist in an intentional activity of some sort, often something new, as familiarity and repetition lead to the tedious.
!function(n){function t(t){for(var e,o,i=t[0],u=t[1],c=0,s=[];c1)for(var e=1;e1&&arguments[1]!==undefined?arguments[1]:"",e=window,o=Date.now();if(n=t+n,e.ansFrontendGlobals&&e.ansFrontendGlobals.earlySettings&&e.ansFrontendGlobals.earlySettings.react_console_log_perf_info){var i=e.performance&&e.performance.now?e.performance.now():o;console.log("".concat(n,": ").concat(i))}r[n]=o}},VLrD:function(n,t,e){"use strict";n.exports=e("E2g8").polyfill()},oqNQ:function(n,t,e){"use strict";e.r(t);e("VLrD");var r=e("S0B4");Object(r.a)("entryLoaded");var o=function(n){return!("undefined"!==typeof fetch&&"undefined"!==typeof Promise&&Object.values&&Object.entries)?function(t){e.e("polyfills").then(e.bind(null,"ZjFC")).then(function(){n(t)})}:n},i=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"A+VG")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),u=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"SKAY")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),c=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"pys6")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),s=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"Gnru")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),a=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"0xW3")).then(function(t){return n(t)})});window.runApp=function(){Object(r.a)("runAppCalled"),i(function(n){n.runApp()})},window.inlineReact=function(n,t,e,o){Object(r.a)("InlineReactCalled","loadable"),l(n,t,e,o)},window.shimProxy=window.shimProxy||{webnodeSubscribeEventsQueue:[]};var f=!1,l=function(n,t,e,o){var u=function(){f||(f=!0,i(function(i){Object(r.a)("StartAppInlineReactCalled","loadable"),i.inlineReact(n,t,e,o)}))};window.shimProxy.webnode?window.shimProxy.webnode.subscribe("REACT_LOADABLE_LOADED",u):window.shimProxy.webnodeSubscribeEventsQueue.push(["REACT_LOADABLE_LOADED",u])};window.renderPrefetchedPage=function(n,t,e){i(function(r){r.renderPrefetchedPage(n,t,e)})},window.renderPrefetchedPageModalDeprecated=function(n,t){i(function(e){e.renderPrefetchedPageModalDeprecated(n,t)})},window.reportPageSpeedData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.reportPageData(n)})},window.setTimingData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.setTimingData(n)})},window.setGlobalMetadata=function(n){s(function(t){return t.setGlobalMetadata(n)})},window.updateGlobalMetadata=function(n){s(function(t){return t.updateGlobalMetadata(n)})},window.setServerPerfCheckpointData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.setServerPerfCheckpointData(n)})},window.setWebnodeLoadable=function(n){a(function(t){return t.setWebnodeLoadable(n)})},window.installSettings=function(){u(function(n){return n.installSettings()})}},yLpj:function(n,t){var e;e=function(){return this}();try{e=e||new Function("return this")()}catch(r){"object"===typeof window&&(e=window)}n.exports=e}});
^ Vodanovich, Stephen J. (November 2003) "Psychometric Measures of Boredom: A Review of the Literature" The Journal of Psychology. 137:6 p. 569 "Indeed, a shortcoming of the boredom literature is the absence of a coherent, universally accepted definition. The lack of an agreed-upon definition of boredom has limited the measurement of the construct and partly accounts for the existence of diverse approaches to assessing various subsets of boredom."
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy. It can be accompanied by depression, decreased motivation, or apathy. Lethargy can be a normal response to boredom, inadequate sleep, overexertion, overworking, stress, lack of exercise, or a symptom of a disorder. When part of a normal response, lethargy often resolves with rest, adequate sleep, decreased stress, and good nutrition.[21][22]

“Time is quixotic because it can torment us. When we have insufficient stimulus to fill our lives, we resent the relentless quality of time, and we engage in activities designed to “kill time.” Time that passes slowly creates insufferable boredom; time that passes to quickly makes us aware of our accelerated death march. A person’s perspective on time depends mostly on what they are most afraid of, boredom or death.”

Some theories emphasize the role of the situation, some emphasize the role of the person, and some emphasize the interaction between situation and person in causing boredom. The present study examines these models by determining whether boredom propensity (person) and/or experimental condition (situation) independently or in interaction affected state boredom. The study also examined the relative contribution of behavioural activation and inhibition to state boredom. Boredom propensity and condition significantly and independently predicted state boredom, as did the interaction between behavioural inhibition and condition. Implications are discussed, including the possibility of two distinct causes of boredom.


“I asked myself whether a life devoid of any affection, of any goal, a life one fills with a thousand trifles intended to relieve its monotony, populated with human beings one seeks out in order not to be alone and whom one flees to avoid being bored by them, whether such a life isn't ridiculous, whether anything whatsoever wouldn't be preferable.”
“Alcohol makes other people less tedious, and food less bland, and can help provide what the Greeks called entheos, or the slight buzz of inspiration when reading or writing. The only worthwhile miracle in the New Testament—the transmutation of water into wine during the wedding at Cana—is a tribute to the persistence of Hellenism in an otherwise austere Judaea. The same applies to the seder at Passover, which is obviously modeled on the Platonic symposium: questions are asked (especially of the young) while wine is circulated. No better form of sodality has ever been devised: at Oxford one was positively expected to take wine during tutorials. The tongue must be untied. It's not a coincidence that Omar Khayyam, rebuking and ridiculing the stone-faced Iranian mullahs of his time, pointed to the value of the grape as a mockery of their joyless and sterile regime. Visiting today's Iran, I was delighted to find that citizens made a point of defying the clerical ban on booze, keeping it in their homes for visitors even if they didn't particularly take to it themselves, and bootlegging it with great brio and ingenuity. These small revolutions affirm the human.”
People who lack self-awareness are more prone to boredom. A bored individual is unable to articulate what it is that he or she desires or wants to do. They have trouble describing their feelings. An inability to know what will make one happy can lead to a more profound existential boredom. Not knowing what we are searching for means that we lack the capacity to choose appropriate goals for engagement with the world (Eastwood, 2012).
×