Different scholars use different definitions of boredom, which complicates research.[9] Boredom has been defined by Cynthia D. Fisher in terms of its main central psychological processes: "an unpleasant, transient affective state in which the individual feels a pervasive lack of interest and difficulty concentrating on the current activity."[10] Mark Leary et al. describe boredom as "an affective experience associated with cognitive attentional processes."[11] In positive psychology, boredom is described as a response to a moderate challenge for which the subject has more than enough skill.[12][full citation needed]
Grunge lit is an Australian literary genre of fictional or semi-autobiographical writing in the early 1990s about young adults living in an "inner cit[y]" "...world of disintegrating futures where the only relief from...boredom was through a nihilistic pursuit of sex, violence, drugs and alcohol".[47] Often the central characters are disfranchised, lacking drive and determination beyond the desire to satisfy their basic needs. It was typically written by "new, young authors"[47] who examined "gritty, dirty, real existences"[47] of everyday characters. It has been described as both a sub-set of dirty realism and an offshoot of Generation X literature.[48] Stuart Glover states that the term "grunge lit" takes the term "grunge" from the "late 80s and early 90s—...Seattle [grunge] bands".[49] Glover states that the term "grunge lit" was mainly a marketing term used by publishing companies; he states that most of the authors who have been categorized as "grunge lit" writers reject the label.[49]
Grunge lit is an Australian literary genre of fictional or semi-autobiographical writing in the early 1990s about young adults living in an "inner cit[y]" "...world of disintegrating futures where the only relief from...boredom was through a nihilistic pursuit of sex, violence, drugs and alcohol".[47] Often the central characters are disfranchised, lacking drive and determination beyond the desire to satisfy their basic needs. It was typically written by "new, young authors"[47] who examined "gritty, dirty, real existences"[47] of everyday characters. It has been described as both a sub-set of dirty realism and an offshoot of Generation X literature.[48] Stuart Glover states that the term "grunge lit" takes the term "grunge" from the "late 80s and early 90s—...Seattle [grunge] bands".[49] Glover states that the term "grunge lit" was mainly a marketing term used by publishing companies; he states that most of the authors who have been categorized as "grunge lit" writers reject the label.[49]
What can you do about boredom? Obviously, there are times when you are stuck. If you are listening to a lecture that you cannot leave, then you just need to find a way to get through it. When you have some control, though, use your understanding of boredom to help you out. If you can, try to do a meditation exercise to lower your arousal level. Also, keep some music handy. Music you enjoy can crowd out distractions in the environment. It can also influence your mood in positive ways to counteract the pain of being bored.  
!function(e){function n(t){if(r[t])return r[t].exports;var o=r[t]={i:t,l:!1,exports:{}};return e[t].call(o.exports,o,o.exports,n),o.l=!0,o.exports}var t=window.ansWebpackJsonpFunction;window.ansWebpackJsonpFunction=function(n,r,i){for(var s,u,l=0,a=[];l1)for(var t=1;tp)return!1;if(d>f)return!1;var e=window.require.hasModule("shared/browser")&&window.require("shared/browser");return!e||!e.opera}function u(){var e="";return"quora.com"==window.Q.subdomainSuffix&&(e+=[window.location.protocol,"//log.quora.com"].join("")),e+="/ajax/log_errors_3RD_PARTY_POST"}function l(){var e=i(h);h=[],0!==e.length&&c(u(),{revision:window.Q.revision,errors:JSON.stringify(e)})}var a=t("./third_party/tracekit.js"),c=t("./shared/basicrpc.js").rpc;a.remoteFetching=!1,a.collectWindowErrors=!0,a.report.subscribe(r);var f=10,p=window.Q&&window.Q.errorSamplingRate||1,h=[],d=0,m=o(l,1e3),y=window.console&&!(window.NODE_JS&&window.UNIT_TEST);n.report=function(e){try{y&&console.error(e.stack||e),a.report(e)}catch(e){}};var w=function(e,n,t){r({name:n,message:t,source:e,stack:a.computeStackTrace.ofCaller().stack||[]}),y&&console.error(t)};n.logJsError=w.bind(null,"js"),n.logMobileJsError=w.bind(null,"mobile_js")},"./shared/globals.js":function(e,n,t){var r=t("./shared/links.js");(window.Q=window.Q||{}).openUrl=function(e,n){var t=e.href;return r.linkClicked(t,n,e),window.open(t).opener=null,!1}},"./shared/links.js":function(e,n){var t=[];n.onLinkClick=function(e){t.push(e)},n.linkClicked=function(e,n,r){for(var o=0;o>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0,r=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,o=0;o>>0;if(0===o)return-1;var i=+n||0;if(Math.abs(i)===Infinity&&(i=0),i>=o)return-1;for(t=Math.max(i>=0?i:o-Math.abs(i),0);t>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=0;r>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError(e+" is not a function");for(arguments.length>1&&(t=n),r=new Array(s),o=0;o>>0;if("function"!=typeof e)throw new TypeError;for(var r=[],o=arguments.length>=2?arguments[1]:void 0,i=0;i>>0,o=0;if(2==arguments.length)n=arguments[1];else{for(;o=r)throw new TypeError("Reduce of empty array with no initial value");n=t[o++]}for(;o>>0;if(0===o)return-1;for(n=o-1,arguments.length>1&&(n=Number(arguments[1]),n!=n?n=0:0!==n&&n!=1/0&&n!=-1/0&&(n=(n>0||-1)*Math.floor(Math.abs(n)))),t=n>=0?Math.min(n,o-1):o-Math.abs(n);t>=0;t--)if(t in r&&r[t]===e)return t;return-1};t(Array.prototype,"lastIndexOf",c)}if(!Array.prototype.includes){var f=function(e){"use strict";if(null==this)throw new TypeError("Array.prototype.includes called on null or undefined");var n=Object(this),t=parseInt(n.length,10)||0;if(0===t)return!1;var r,o=parseInt(arguments[1],10)||0;o>=0?r=o:(r=t+o)<0&&(r=0);for(var i;r
Finally, a real problem caused by boredom is that it leads you to dislike the things that are the object of boredom. In my senior year of high school, for example, I was forced to read Moby Dick. I struggled to get interested in it and spent long hours staring at the pages trying to lose myself in it. To this day, I really do not like Moby Dick. The negative feelings that came with the boredom have stuck to the book.
Although it has not been widely studied, research on boredom suggests that boredom is a major factor impacting diverse areas of a person's life. People ranked low on a boredom-proneness scale were found to have better performance in a wide variety of aspects of their lives, including career, education, and autonomy.[30] Boredom can be a symptom of clinical depression. Boredom can be a form of learned helplessness, a phenomenon closely related to depression. Some philosophies of parenting propose that if children are raised in an environment devoid of stimuli, and are not allowed or encouraged to interact with their environment, they will fail to develop the mental capacities to do so.
There are three types of boredom, all of which involve problems of engagement of attention. These include times when we are prevented from engaging in wanted activity, when we are forced to engage in unwanted activity, or when we are simply unable for some other reason to maintain engagement in an activity.[13] Boredom proneness is a tendency to experience boredom of all types. This is typically assessed by the Boredom Proneness Scale.[14] Recent research has found that boredom proneness is clearly and consistently associated with failures of attention.[15] Boredom and its proneness are both theoretically and empirically linked to depression and similar symptoms.[16][17][18] Nonetheless, boredom proneness has been found to be as strongly correlated with attentional lapses as with depression.[16] Although boredom is often viewed as a trivial and mild irritant, proneness to boredom has been linked to a very diverse range of possible psychological, physical, educational, and social problems.[19]
The superfluous man (Russian: лишний человек, lishniy chelovek) is an 1840s and 1850s Russian literary concept derived from the Byronic hero.[42] It refers to an individual, perhaps talented and capable, who does not fit into social norms. In most cases, this person is born into wealth and privilege. Typical characteristics are disregard for social values, cynicism, and existential boredom; typical behaviors are gambling, drinking, smoking, sexual intrigues, and duels. He is often unempathetic and carelessly distresses others with his actions.
In Experience Without Qualities: Boredom and Modernity, Elizabeth Goodstein traces the modern discourse on boredom through literary, philosophical, and sociological texts to find that as "a discursively articulated phenomenon...boredom is at once objective and subjective, emotion and intellectualization—not just a response to the modern world but also a historically constituted strategy for coping with its discontents."[3] In both conceptions, boredom has to do fundamentally with an experience of time and problems of meaning.
In Experience Without Qualities: Boredom and Modernity, Elizabeth Goodstein traces the modern discourse on boredom through literary, philosophical, and sociological texts to find that as "a discursively articulated phenomenon...boredom is at once objective and subjective, emotion and intellectualization—not just a response to the modern world but also a historically constituted strategy for coping with its discontents."[3] In both conceptions, boredom has to do fundamentally with an experience of time and problems of meaning.

!function(n){function t(t){for(var e,o,i=t[0],u=t[1],c=0,s=[];c1)for(var e=1;e1&&arguments[1]!==undefined?arguments[1]:"",e=window,o=Date.now();if(n=t+n,e.ansFrontendGlobals&&e.ansFrontendGlobals.earlySettings&&e.ansFrontendGlobals.earlySettings.react_console_log_perf_info){var i=e.performance&&e.performance.now?e.performance.now():o;console.log("".concat(n,": ").concat(i))}r[n]=o}},VLrD:function(n,t,e){"use strict";n.exports=e("E2g8").polyfill()},oqNQ:function(n,t,e){"use strict";e.r(t);e("VLrD");var r=e("S0B4");Object(r.a)("entryLoaded");var o=function(n){return!("undefined"!==typeof fetch&&"undefined"!==typeof Promise&&Object.values&&Object.entries)?function(t){e.e("polyfills").then(e.bind(null,"ZjFC")).then(function(){n(t)})}:n},i=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"A+VG")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),u=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"SKAY")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),c=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"pys6")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),s=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"Gnru")).then(function(t){return n(t)})}),a=o(function(n){Promise.all([e.e("vendor"),e.e("common")]).then(e.bind(null,"0xW3")).then(function(t){return n(t)})});window.runApp=function(){Object(r.a)("runAppCalled"),i(function(n){n.runApp()})},window.inlineReact=function(n,t,e,o){Object(r.a)("InlineReactCalled","loadable"),l(n,t,e,o)},window.shimProxy=window.shimProxy||{webnodeSubscribeEventsQueue:[]};var f=!1,l=function(n,t,e,o){var u=function(){f||(f=!0,i(function(i){Object(r.a)("StartAppInlineReactCalled","loadable"),i.inlineReact(n,t,e,o)}))};window.shimProxy.webnode?window.shimProxy.webnode.subscribe("REACT_LOADABLE_LOADED",u):window.shimProxy.webnodeSubscribeEventsQueue.push(["REACT_LOADABLE_LOADED",u])};window.renderPrefetchedPage=function(n,t,e){i(function(r){r.renderPrefetchedPage(n,t,e)})},window.renderPrefetchedPageModalDeprecated=function(n,t){i(function(e){e.renderPrefetchedPageModalDeprecated(n,t)})},window.reportPageSpeedData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.reportPageData(n)})},window.setTimingData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.setTimingData(n)})},window.setGlobalMetadata=function(n){s(function(t){return t.setGlobalMetadata(n)})},window.updateGlobalMetadata=function(n){s(function(t){return t.updateGlobalMetadata(n)})},window.setServerPerfCheckpointData=function(n){c(function(t){return t.setServerPerfCheckpointData(n)})},window.setWebnodeLoadable=function(n){a(function(t){return t.setWebnodeLoadable(n)})},window.installSettings=function(){u(function(n){return n.installSettings()})}},yLpj:function(n,t){var e;e=function(){return this}();try{e=e||new Function("return this")()}catch(r){"object"===typeof window&&(e=window)}n.exports=e}});

!function(n,t){function r(e,n){return Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(e,n)}function o(e){return void 0===e}if(n){var i={},s=n.TraceKit,u=[].slice,l="?";i.noConflict=function(){return n.TraceKit=s,i},i.wrap=function(e){function n(){try{return e.apply(this,arguments)}catch(e){throw i.report(e),e}}return n},i.report=function(){function e(e){l(),h.push(e)}function t(e){for(var n=h.length-1;n>=0;--n)h[n]===e&&h.splice(n,1)}function o(e,n){var t=null;if(!n||i.collectWindowErrors){for(var o in h)if(r(h,o))try{h[o].apply(null,[e].concat(u.call(arguments,2)))}catch(e){t=e}if(t)throw t}}function s(e,n,t,r,s){var u=null;if(y)i.computeStackTrace.augmentStackTraceWithInitialElement(y,n,t,e),a();else if(s)u=i.computeStackTrace(s),o(u,!0);else{var l={url:n,line:t,column:r};l.func=i.computeStackTrace.guessFunctionName(l.url,l.line),l.context=i.computeStackTrace.gatherContext(l.url,l.line),u={mode:"onerror",message:e,stack:[l]},o(u,!0)}return!!f&&f.apply(this,arguments)}function l(){!0!==p&&(f=n.onerror,n.onerror=s,p=!0)}function a(){var e=y,n=d;d=null,y=null,m=null,o.apply(null,[e,!1].concat(n))}function c(e){if(y){if(m===e)return;a()}var t=i.computeStackTrace(e);throw y=t,m=e,d=u.call(arguments,1),n.setTimeout(function(){m===e&&a()},t.incomplete?2e3:0),e}var f,p,h=[],d=null,m=null,y=null;return c.subscribe=e,c.unsubscribe=t,c}(),i.computeStackTrace=function(){function e(e){if(!i.remoteFetching)return"";try{var t=function(){try{return new n.XMLHttpRequest}catch(e){return new n.ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP")}},r=t();return r.open("GET",e,!1),r.send(""),r.responseText}catch(e){return""}}function t(t){if("string"!=typeof t)return[];if(!r(x,t)){var o="",i="";try{i=n.document.domain}catch(e){}var s=/(.*)\:\/\/([^:\/]+)([:\d]*)\/{0,1}([\s\S]*)/.exec(t);s&&s[2]===i&&(o=e(t)),x[t]=o?o.split("\n"):[]}return x[t]}function s(e,n){var r,i=/function ([^(]*)\(([^)]*)\)/,s=/['"]?([0-9A-Za-z$_]+)['"]?\s*[:=]\s*(function|eval|new Function)/,u="",a=10,c=t(e);if(!c.length)return l;for(var f=0;f0?s:null}function a(e){return e.replace(/[\-\[\]{}()*+?.,\\\^$|#]/g,"\\$&")}function c(e){return a(e).replace("<","(?:<|<)").replace(">","(?:>|>)").replace("&","(?:&|&)").replace('"','(?:"|")').replace(/\s+/g,"\\s+")}function f(e,n){for(var r,o,i=0,s=n.length;ir&&(o=s.exec(i[r]))?o.index:null}function h(e){if(!o(n&&n.document)){for(var t,r,i,s,u=[n.location.href],l=n.document.getElementsByTagName("script"),p=""+e,h=/^function(?:\s+([\w$]+))?\s*\(([\w\s,]*)\)\s*\{\s*(\S[\s\S]*\S)\s*\}\s*$/,d=/^function on([\w$]+)\s*\(event\)\s*\{\s*(\S[\s\S]*\S)\s*\}\s*$/,m=0;m]+)>|([^\)]+))\((.*)\))? in (.*):\s*$/i,i=n.split("\n"),l=[],a=0;a=0&&(g.line=v+j.substring(0,x).split("\n").length)}}}else if(i=p.exec(o[w])){var _=n.location.href.replace(/#.*$/,""),T=new RegExp(c(o[w+1])),E=f(T,[_]);g={url:_,func:"",args:[],line:E?E.line:i[1],column:null}}if(g){g.func||(g.func=s(g.url,g.line));var k=u(g.url,g.line),A=k?k[Math.floor(k.length/2)]:null;k&&A.replace(/^\s*/,"")===o[w+1].replace(/^\s*/,"")?g.context=k:g.context=[o[w+1]],h.push(g)}}return h.length?{mode:"multiline",name:e.name,message:o[0],stack:h}:null}function w(e,n,t,r){var o={url:n,line:t};if(o.url&&o.line){e.incomplete=!1,o.func||(o.func=s(o.url,o.line)),o.context||(o.context=u(o.url,o.line));var i=/ '([^']+)' /.exec(r);if(i&&(o.column=p(i[1],o.url,o.line)),e.stack.length>0&&e.stack[0].url===o.url){if(e.stack[0].line===o.line)return!1;if(!e.stack[0].line&&e.stack[0].func===o.func)return e.stack[0].line=o.line,e.stack[0].context=o.context,!1}return e.stack.unshift(o),e.partial=!0,!0}return e.incomplete=!0,!1}function g(e,n){for(var t,r,o,u=/function\s+([_$a-zA-Z\xA0-\uFFFF][_$a-zA-Z0-9\xA0-\uFFFF]*)?\s*\(/i,a=[],c={},f=!1,d=g.caller;d&&!f;d=d.caller)if(d!==v&&d!==i.report){if(r={url:null,func:l,args:[],line:null,column:null},d.name?r.func=d.name:(t=u.exec(d.toString()))&&(r.func=t[1]),"undefined"==typeof r.func)try{r.func=t.input.substring(0,t.input.indexOf("{"))}catch(e){}if(o=h(d)){r.url=o.url,r.line=o.line,r.func===l&&(r.func=s(r.url,r.line));var m=/ '([^']+)' /.exec(e.message||e.description);m&&(r.column=p(m[1],o.url,o.line))}c[""+d]?f=!0:c[""+d]=!0,a.push(r)}n&&a.splice(0,n);var y={mode:"callers",name:e.name,message:e.message,stack:a};return w(y,e.sourceURL||e.fileName,e.line||e.lineNumber,e.message||e.description),y}function v(e,n){var t=null;n=null==n?0:+n;try{if(t=m(e))return t}catch(e){if(j)throw e}try{if(t=d(e))return t}catch(e){if(j)throw e}try{if(t=y(e))return t}catch(e){if(j)throw e}try{if(t=g(e,n+1))return t}catch(e){if(j)throw e}return{mode:"failed"}}function b(e){e=1+(null==e?0:+e);try{throw new Error}catch(n){return v(n,e+1)}}var j=!1,x={};return v.augmentStackTraceWithInitialElement=w,v.guessFunctionName=s,v.gatherContext=u,v.ofCaller=b,v.getSource=t,v}(),i.extendToAsynchronousCallbacks=function(){var e=function(e){var t=n[e];n[e]=function(){var e=u.call(arguments),n=e[0];return"function"==typeof n&&(e[0]=i.wrap(n)),t.apply?t.apply(this,e):t(e[0],e[1])}};e("setTimeout"),e("setInterval")},i.remoteFetching||(i.remoteFetching=!0),i.collectWindowErrors||(i.collectWindowErrors=!0),(!i.linesOfContext||i.linesOfContext<1)&&(i.linesOfContext=11),void 0!==e&&e.exports&&n.module!==e?e.exports=i:"function"==typeof define&&define.amd?define("TraceKit",[],i):n.TraceKit=i}}("undefined"!=typeof window?window:global)},"./webpack-loaders/expose-loader/index.js?require!./shared/require-global.js":function(e,n,t){(function(n){e.exports=n.require=t("./shared/require-global.js")}).call(n,t("../../../lib/node_modules/webpack/buildin/global.js"))}});

In Experience Without Qualities: Boredom and Modernity, Elizabeth Goodstein traces the modern discourse on boredom through literary, philosophical, and sociological texts to find that as "a discursively articulated phenomenon...boredom is at once objective and subjective, emotion and intellectualization—not just a response to the modern world but also a historically constituted strategy for coping with its discontents."[3] In both conceptions, boredom has to do fundamentally with an experience of time and problems of meaning.
The French loanword ennui comes from the very same Late Latin word that gave us annoy — inodiare ("to make loathsome"). We borrowed ennui several centuries after absorbing annoy into the language. Ennui deals more with boredom than irritation - and a somewhat specific sort of boredom at that. It generally refers to the feeling of jadedness that can result from living a life of too much ease. The poet Charles Lloyd described it well in his 1823 Stanzas to Ennui when he referred to that world-weary sensation as a "soul-destroying fiend" which visits with its "pale unrest / The chambers of the human breast / Where too much happiness hath fixed its home."
×